Assam Timeline of Assam History
Assam is a state lying in north-east of modern India, with Bangladesh bordering it to the west , south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra river and Barak Valley. The people mainly belong to a mix of Mongoloid, Caucasian and Australoid races, speaking Austro-Asiatic, Indo-Aryan, and Tibeto-Burman language types. In the mythological period Assam experienced its first known rulers under a dynasty called the Danavas. They and the succeeding Naraka dynasty find mention even in epics such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, Kalika Purana, Yogini Tantra, and so on. At this time, Assam was known as Kamarupa (Pragjyotisha), which was crystallised in a kingdom of the same name that emerged into history in the ninth century AD. Timeline of Assam History
The Danava were the first accounted kings in the Assam region of India, beginning the region’s political history. Mention of them can be found in Hindu literature, but no other source material has survived to confirm their existence. The chiefs were mountain people, possibly of Mongoloid origin, who were known in literature as the Kirata.
Founder of the dynasty.
Killed by the first Naraka king.
14th century BC
Ghatakasura is killed by Narakasura who founds the dynasty of Naraka kings that subsequently rules the region.
Naraka Kings Timeline of Assam History
The Naraka were another semi-mythical dynasty in Assam, as were the Danava before them. Similarly, they are only mentioned in Hindu literature, with no external confirmation, although there is probably a basic truth in the existence of a powerful dynasty of kings around whom later legends were built. The first Naraka king, Narakasura, killed the last of the Danava kings and claimed his territory, founding a dynasty which was probably aboriginal. Timeline of Assam History
Founder of the dynasty.
c.1310s BC ?
Narakasura is apparently killed in battle by Lord Krishna of Dwarka and his spouse, Satyabhama. Perhaps not all of the kings of this dynasty are known, but the prominent ones are shown below.
Took part in the Kurukshetra War in the Mahabharata.
One of the contemporaries of Jarasandha of Magadha is Jayatsena, probably an ally and vassal who rules a section of the kingdom independently after Jarasandha’s death. Jayatsena takes part in the Kurukshetra War in the Mahabharata as one of the leaders on the side of Kauravas, along with Srutayus of Kalinga, Paundraka Vasudeva of Pundra, Karna of Anga, and Malayadwaja of the Pandyas. Bhagadatta of the Naraka kings is also involved in the war.
Last Naraka king. Assassinated by his ministers.
c.1230s BC ?
The Narakas are not mentioned again and Assam becomes obscured by the mists of time, for at least a millennium. The Varman kings are the next to emerge, the first historical dynasty in the region.
350 – 374
Founded the kingdom.
374 – 398
398 – 422
422 – 446
446 – 470
Ganpativarman / Ganendravarman
470 – 494
Mahendravarman / Surendravarman
494 – 518
518 – 542
Bhutivarman / Mahabhutivarman
542 – 566
566 – 590
590 – 595
595 – 600
600 – 650
Brother. Said to be an illustrious king.
The Kamata kingdom emerges in western Assam.
Bhaskaravarman assists Harshavardhana of Thaneshwar against the Gauda King Shashanka. Even though Bhaskaravarman is a Hindu he also patronises Buddhism. He dies without a heir.
c.650 – 655
After the short reign of Bhaskaravarman’s sole successor, the kingdom falls under the dominion of the Salasthambha Mlechha dynasty. A Varman dynasty later emerges in Samatata, but it is unclear if that bears any relation to the Varman kings of Assam.
c.655 – 675
c.675 – 685
Vijaya / Vighrasthambha
c.685 – 700
c.700 – 715
c.715 – 725
c.725 – 745
Harshadeva / Harshavarman
c.750 – 765
c.765 – ?
Name of this one, possibly two, king(s) unknown.
? – c.790
Pralambha / Salambha
c.790 – 810
c.810 – 815
Pala king Devapala conquers Pragjyotisha (Assam), where the (unnamed) king submits without a fight.
815 – 832
832 – 855
The first of the Kachari kings claims to rule in the town of Dimapur in Assam, probably as little more than powerful chieftains at this point.
855 – 860
860 – 880
890 – 900
The Mlechha are forced out of their base by the Kamarupa Pala kings and are pushed towards Dimapur, Maibong, Khaspur and Sadiya. The remnants of the Mlechha later establish new kingdoms; the Kachari kingdom at Khaspur and the Chutiya kingdom at Sadiya. Kamarupa takes over the bulk of their former territory. Timeline of Assam History
Gaud Pala Kings of Bengal (in Assam)
1110 – 1126
Timgyadeva / Timeyadeva
Former Pala governor. Declared independence.
While it seems to take some time for his former Pala masters to deal with Timgyadeva, retribution for his declaration of independence arrives in the form of Kumarapala, son of Ramapala. Timgyadeva is deposed (his ultimate fate is unknown) and a new governor is assigned to the region.
1126 – 1140
Former Pala governor. Declared independence.
Following the death of Kumarapala, his Pala governor in Assam, Vaidyadeva, also declares his independence, but his reign is very brief as the Kamarupa kings take this opportunity to restore their own rule.
Kamarupa Kings (Restored)
c.1131 – 1138
Restored, but unlikely. Perhaps the real name has been lost.
c.1138 – 1145
c.1145 – ?
? – c.1175
c.1175 – 1195
The Khen kings emerge in Assam, elevating themselves from local chieftains to kings as a power vacuum emerges with the decline of the Kamarupa kings.
Kamarupa’s decline is highlighted once again as the Chutiya kings emerge to the east of the kingdom, in north-eastern Assam.
The Barobhuyan chieftains emerge to the west of Kamarupa in Assam, forming a buffer region between Kamarupa and the Kamata kings.
c.1195 – 1228
During his rule of Bengal, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Khilji builds up a powerful navy and takes on Vanga (a former Iron Age state in eastern Bengal), Kamrupa, the Utkalas, and Tirhut (northern Bihar). The Eastern Gangas to the immediate south of the Utkalas appear to escape any major attacks to start with, but are soon forced to fight their own defensive battles.
The Kampura kingdom finally collapses, although it has probably already been much-reduced in territory. The Ahomkings succeed them in Assam, based more to the east. The Kachari kings also begin to emerge in eastern Assam. Kamarupa itself later becomes the capital of the Koch kings.
1228 – 1268
Founder of the dynasty.
Mameluke king of Bengal, Iuzbak, proclaims himself an independent ruler. The ambitious Iuzbak attacks and occupies Bihar and, buoyed by his success, he invades Kamarupa. This proves disastrous and Iuzbak is killed in battle.
1268 – 1281
1281 – 1293
1293 – 1332
1332 – 1364
The Kachari kings emerge as a recognisably independent kingdom based at Dimapur in Assam. Timeline of Assam History
1364 – 1369
There is an interregnum, although the circumstances are unknown.
1369 – 1376
Brother. Killed by the Chutiya king.
1376 – 1380
A second interregnum hits the dynasty following Sutupha’s untimely death.
1380 – 1389
Son of Sukhangpha. Assassinated.
1389 – 1397
Yet another assassination provides another interregnum in the unsteady rule of the Ahom kings. The next to claim the kingship eight years later moves the capital to Charagua, perhaps to increase his security.
1397 – 1407
Sudangpha / Bamuni Kumar
1407 – 1422
1422 – 1439
1439 – 1488
1488 – 1493
1493 – 1497
1497 – 1539
Suhunmung / Dihingia Roja I
Son. Assassinated. Ruled from his capital at Bakata.
The Khen kings fall to an Islamic invasion.
Three years after the accession of Suhunmung (also known as Swarganarayan), the Jayantiya kingdom emerges in Assam, located just above the north-east corner of modern Bangladesh.
The Koch kings replace the Khen kings in southern Assam.
As a partial culmination of their inter-kingdom feud, the Ahoms take Sadiya and kill the Chutiya king. The position of sadiyakhowa gohain is created, the governor of Sadiya. The Chutiyas, forced away from their capital, rally in the countryside and conduct guerrilla warfare against the Ahoms. Timeline of Assam History
1539 – 1552
Suklenmung / Garghyan Roja
Son. Ruled from his capital at Garhgaon.
1552 – 1603
Sukhampha / Khura Roja
During his reign, the Kachari king, Satrudaman, is also responsible for an invasion of the Jayantiya kingdom which begins a period of increased Kachari dominance there, although they are rivalled by the Ahoms.
1603 – 1641
Susengpha / Pratapsingha / Burha Roja
Son. Also known as Buddhiswarganarayan.
The descendants of the brother of the last king of Koch Hajo are allowed to form the Ahom vassal state of Derrang.
Susengpha expands his territories to the west and comes into conflict with the Moghuls, probably during the reign of Jahangir, signalling later trouble for the Ahom kings. Despite this serious mistake, the king makes a good ruler and administrator. He also brings the Barobhuyan chieftains under his domination.
1641 – 1644
Surampha / Bhoga Roja
Son. Also known as Jayaditya Singha. Deposed by Sutingpha.
1644 – 1648
Sutingpha / Nooriya Roja
Brother. Deposed and murdered by his son, Sutamla.
1644 – 1648
Nooriya Roja and King Jasamanta Ray of the Jayantiya kingdom become involved in a dispute over territory, which sours the previously good relations between the kingdoms.
1648 – 1663
Sutamla / Jayadhwaj Singha
Sutamla rules from his capitals at Bakata and Garhgaon, which had also served Suhunmung and Suklenmung in the first half of the sixteenth century. He adopts the monotheist Mahapuruxia religion. Timeline of Assam History
1660 – 1663
Mir Jumla, the Moghul subahdar of Bengal, is an enterprising ex-employee from Golconda who switches sides to join the Moghuls. He is made governor of Bengal, where he does a commendable job, expanding his territory to include Kamarupa and Koch Bihar.
1663 – 1671
Supangmung / Chakradhwaj Singha
Supangmung’s general, Lachit Borphukan, stems Moghul expansionism by defeating their more powerful army at Guwhati during the Battle of Saraighat. The Ahom troops use the terrain to their advantage, coupled with every other trick in the book to demoralise and disorder their opponents. Timeline of Assam History
1671 – 1672
Sunyatpha / Udyaditya Singha
Brother. Deposed as an unpopular bigot.
1672 – 1674
Suklanpha / Ramadhwaj Singha
The Chutiyas fall under the domination of the Ahom kings, and are absorbed into their state. The Kachari and Jayantiya kings remain in power in various other parts of Assam.
1674 – 1675
Suhunga / Samaguria Roja
A descendent of Suhunmung.
Great-grandson of Suhunmung.
Gobar Raja is deposed by Atarn Buragohain and executed.
1675 – 1677
Grandson of Pratapsingha. Deposed & blinded. Committed suicide.
1677 – 1679
Great-grandson of Suhunmung. Deposed and killed.
1679 – 1681
Of the Samaguria family. Deposed and killed.
1681 – 1696
Supatpha / Gadadhar Singha
Son of Gobar Raja.
|Timeline of Assam History|
Supatpha governs from Borkola, establishing the rule of the Tungkhungia clan. He retakes Guwahati from theMoghuls and proves to be a good administrator.
The Moghuls attacked the vassal kingdom of Derrang, deposing Suryanarayan there. The kingdom is ended, but the Ahoms regain control of the region.
1696 – 1714
Sukhrungpha / Rudrasingha
Son. Ruled from Rangpur.
|Timeline of Assam History|
Sukhrungpha banishes his brother, Lechai, fearing his ambitions. Lechai’s son later returns to lead a rebellion against a later king. Timeline of Assam History
Sutanpha / Siba Singha
Son. Adopted the Shaktism religion.
1744 – 1751
Sunenpha / Pramata Singha
Brother. Built Rangghar amphitheatre.
1751 – 1769
Surempha / Rajeshwar Singha
During his reign, Surempha builds Manikarneshwar temple, along with Sureshwar and Siddheswar temples. He also sends an army to aid the ruler of Manipur, who has been deposed by the Burmese.
1769 – 1780
Sunyeopha / Laxmisingha
Sunyeopha starts to persecute followers of the Mahapuruxia religion, which leads to disunity in the kingdom and the Moamoria Rebellion, which is led by Mohanmala, son of Lechai. The king is held captive by rebels for a time but later regains his kingdom.
1780 – 1795
Suhitpangpha / Gaurinath Singha
Suhitpangpha loses Rangpur to rebels from Mormaria. He rules the kingdom from his capital at Jorhat and commissions a team of Nora astronomers to re-examine the history of the Ahoms. Timeline of Assam History
1795 – 1811
Suklingpha / Kamleshwar Singha
Great-grandson of Lechai. Killed by smallpox when young.
1811 – 1818
Brother. Deposed and imprisoned.
1818 – 1819
Descendent of Surempha.
Purandar Singha defeats the Burmese during their invasion of Assam, but the capital at Jorhat falls to them.
1819 – 1821
Sudingpha / Chandrakanta Singha
Restored following the removal of Purandar Singha.
1819 – 1824
Soon after he is restored to the throne, Sudingpha is forced to flee from the capital after an invasion of Assam by the Bagyidaw Burmese is led by Milingmaha Tilwa. The Ahoms are ruled by the Burmese, with the brother of Hemo Aideo, the Bagyidaw queen of Burma, ruling as a puppet.
1821 – 1822
Burmese puppet ruler. Removed.
1822 – 1824
As Burmese attention on the Ahoms begins to waver from 1822, their puppet ruler is removed. Purandar Singha is restored to the throne, but this time as a tributary raja of Upper Assam, subject to the authority of the British East India Company. In 1824 the start of the Anglo-Burmese War forces the occupiers to fully concentrate on their own lands, ending the period of occupation.
1822 – 1838
The last of the Kachari kings dies without a heir and the British East India Company annexes the kingdom under the details of its Doctrine of Lapse.
The Jayantiya kingdom also finds itself being annexed by the East India Company.
Assam is converted into a principality by the East India Company, ending the rule of the last remaining independent Assam kings.
***This Timeline of Assam History is Self Studies by the Author of Assam Gk taking help and reference from Govt. of Assam, Wikipedia,and republished from the Original Author of World History Maps and published work of other Authors.